Infant & Toddler

0-3 Years


3-5 Years

School Age

5+ Years


0-2 months
  • Holds head up well off mat when on stomach
  • Holds legs up when lying on back
  • Becomes active when toy is seen
  • Responds to a smile with a smile
  • Cries differently for hunger, pain and fatigue
  • Makes sounds other than crying
  • Looks at your face
3 months
  • Grasps a rattle or small toy placed in hand
  • Brings hands together and to mouth
  • Looks at feet and hands
  • Sees objects at a distance of about 12 inches
  • Watches your mouth when you talk face to face
  • Makes cooing sounds
  • Responds to Mother’s voice
4 months
  • Brings hands together over chest & touches fingers while on back
  • Rolls from stomach to back
  • Reaches for a toy when held in a sitting position
  • Begins to babble using different sounds such as ‘p’, ‘b’, and ‘m’
  • Chuckles (not yet full laugh) when you try to make them laugh
  • Pushes up onto elbows/forearms when on tummy
5 months
  • Brings feet to mouth when lying on back
  • Feels feet with hands
  • Holds bottle with both hands (may also pat it)
  • Looks for object when it is slowly moved out of sight
  • Smiles at self in front of big mirror
  • Laughs with pleasure
  • Uses mouth to explore environment
6 months
  • Rolls from back to tummy
  • Sits briefly without help
  • Holds a bottle to mouth by self
  • Has full color vision
  • Turns toward the source of normal sound
  • Grabs own foot while lying on back
  • Imitates speech sounds
  • Responds to soft sounds especially talking
  • Anticipates feeding
  • Pushes with straight arms when on tummy
7 months
  • Crawls forward on stomach
  • Gets into sitting position without help
  • Uses hand and mouth to explore objects
  • Passes a small object from one hand to the other
  • Eyes track 180 degrees from side to side while sitting
8 months
  • Plays peek-a-boo
  • Bangs toys and other things together
  • Feeds self finger foods
  • Vocalizes for attention
9 months
  • Crawls or otherwise gets around well
  • Pulls self up to stand (but not to get down) using furniture
  • Releases objects intentionally
  • After seeing object covered by cloth, picks up cloth
  • Pulls on a string to get a toy
  • Makes more sounds (‘m’, ‘n’, ‘t’, ‘d’, ‘h’, ‘p’, ‘z’)
  • Uses fingers to “rake” food
10 months
  • Looks closely at tiny objects
  • Looks at familiar objects when named
11 months
  • Pokes into holes with index finger
  • Pushes or rolls a ball
  • Throws things just to see what happens
1 year
  • Walks sideways while holding onto furniture
  • Grasps thick crayon or pencil in fist as if to mark, but may not mark
  • Turns thick pages (such as cardboard)
  • Watches own thrown objects
  • Puts objects into a container
  • Waves “bye-bye”
  • Says 1–2 words
  • Makes “ma-ma” or “da-da” sounds
  • Picks up things between thumb and pointer finger, like small bits of food
  • Drinks from a cup without a lid as you hold it
1 yr 1 month
  • Walks alone (up to 8 feet)
  • Enjoys looking at pictures in books
  • Identifies 3 body parts
1 yr 2 months
  • Bends or squats to pick up an object and stands up again without falling
  • Climbs onto furniture
  • Pushes toy while walking
  • Hands things to others
  • Makes a stack of 2 blocks
1 yr 3 months
  • Marks independently on paper with crayon or pencil
  • Puts something in and then gets it out of a container
  • Claps when excited
  • Hugs stuffed doll or other toy
1 yr 4 months
  • Seems to recognize self in mirror
  • Scribbles spontaneously & freely with crayon, marker, or pencil
1 yr 5 months
  • Begins to run
  • Drinks from a cup or glass and sets it down without much spilling
  • Builds tower of 3 blocks
  • Scoops food and brings to mouth with some spillage
1 yr 6 months
  • Helps to pull off simple clothing and extends arms & legs to help with dressing
  • Gets spoon in mouth right-side up with little spilling
  • Throws a small ball (over- or underhand) a few feet while standing
  • Likes to push and pull objects
  • Says at least 6 words
  • Follows simple directions (Bring the Ball)
  • Points or makes sounds or tries to use words to ask for things
  • Says “no”, shakes their head or pushes away things they don’t want
  • Uses words like “more”, “mine” and “no”
1 yr 8 months
  • Turns regular book pages by self (may turn more than one at a time)
  • Stacks a 4-block tower
  • Begins to use 2 words
1 yr 9 months
  • Walks both up & down stairs alone at least 2 steps with both feet on each step
  • Uses play dough, paint, and paper
  • Turns pictures right-side up if given upside down
  • Scribbles without going off paper
  • Asks “what’s that?”
  • Follows a 2 step related command (pick up the ball give it to me)
1 yr 11 months
  • Matches pictures to real things
  • Completes a 1- to 3-piece puzzle or form board
  • Strings 3 one-inch beads with long-tipped lace
2 yrs
  • Imitates drawing a vertical line
  • Kicks ball forward with either foot without support
  • Runs
  • Uses 2 to 3 words in a sentence
  • Recognizes familiar pictures
  • Likes to imitate their parent
  • Shows affection
  • Notices when others are hurt or upset, like pausing or looking sad when someone is crying
  • Independently drinks from cup
2 yrs1 months
  • Runs in a coordinated way
  • Unbuttons large, easy buttons
2 yrs 2 months
  • Identifies 4 body parts on self (hair, mouth, feet, ear, nose, hands, eyes)
  • Throws a large ball
2 yrs 3 months
  • Turns regular book pages one at a time
  • Answers simple “who”, “what”, “where” questions
  • Identifies 4 actions
2 yrs 5 months
  • Matches circle, triangle, or square when shown how
  • Understands 500+ words
2 yrs 6 months
  • Jumps with both feet leaving the floor at the same time
  • Grasps pencil with thumb and fingers instead of fist
  • Says about 50 words
  • Plays next to other children and sometimes plays with them
2 yrs 7 months
  • Makes small cuts (snips) on a line with child-safe scissors & some help
  • Eats with a fork
  • Builds a tower using 8 cubes
  • Understands simple spatial concepts (in, on)
2 yrs 9 months
  • Uses small beads and pegs
  • Points to 6 body parts in a picture when asked
  • Understands size concepts (big/little)
2 yrs 11 months
  • Strings half-inch beads
  • Points to pictures of objects by use
  • Verbalizes recent experiences
Preschool Milestones


3 yrs 0 months
  • Pedals a tricycle
  • Puts on their shoes
  • Plays with other children for a few minutes
  • Repeat common rhymes
  • Uses 3 to 5 word sentences
  • Does finger plays while singing little songs
  • Copies a circle with pencil and paper
  • Names at least 1 color correctly
  • Says first name, when asked
  • Notices other children and joins them with play
  • Calms down within 10 minutes after leaving parents, like at a childcare drop off
3 yrs 2 months
  • Kicks a ball 10 feet
  • Begins to ask questions
3 yrs 5 months
  • Walks up and down stairs, alternating feet, hand on rail
  • Says 4 to 5 word sentences
  • Understands in front/behind
3 yrs 6 months
  • Grasps pencil with thumb, index, and middle fingers
  • Counts 5 objects aloud
  • Points to or names 4 basic colors
  • Builds a tower of more than 9 blocks without help
  • Strings (hard tipped) at least 8 half-inch beads into a simple pattern
  • Standing, throws a small ball overhand toward a person who is at least 6’ away
3 yrs 9 months
  • Completes a 4- or 5-piece puzzle
  • Mastered sounds ‘b’, ‘d’, ‘k’, ‘g’, ‘f’, ‘y’
3 yrs 10 months
  • Places at least 6 small pegs in board holes
  • Describes object use
3 yrs 11 months
  • Goes up stairs without support, alternating feet
  • Buttons and unbuttons quarter-inch buttons
  • Names 5 of 5 different colors like red, blue, yellow, orange, black, white, or pink
4 yrs 0 months
  • Draws a person with 3 different body parts
  • Follows 3 step direction
  • Holds crayon or pencil between fingers and thumb (not fist)
  • Pretends to be something else during play (teacher, superhero, dog)
  • Likes to be a “helper”
4 yrs 1 months
  • Copies a vertical-horizontal cross
  • Pedals a tricycle around obstacles and makes U-turns
4 yrs 3 months
  • Runs around obstacles and turns corners
  • Colors almost entirely within lines of 4-inch wide circle
  • Very intelligible in connected speech
4 yrs 5 months
  • Climbs rungs of playground slide ladder and slides down unassisted
  • Describes pictures using sentences
4 yrs 6 months
  • Sorts objects by color, size, and shape
  • Copies a square
  • Bounces a ball 2-3 times
  • Catches a beanbag with hands and chest
  • Uses verb tenses
4 yrs 7 months
  • Pumps and maintains momentum on a swing
  • Cuts out a big circle with scissors
4 yrs 9 months
  • Begins to jump rope
  • Feels objects without looking and identifies circle, squares, and triangles
  • Counts objects aloud to at least 6
4 yrs 10 months
  • Draws some simple, recognizable objects
  • Uses complex sentences (We went to the store and bought milk)
4 yrs 11 months
  • Places 1-1/4” paper clip on paper


5 yrs 0 months
  • Hops on one foot, 8-10 hops
  • Jumps over knee-high obstacles with both feet together
  • Draws a face with mouth, nose, and eyes
  • Dresses and undresses adequately without help
  • Prints own name, but not clearly
  • Understands 2,500 – 2800 words
  • Does simple chores at home, like matching socks or clearing the table after eating
  • Counts to 10
5 yrs 4 months
  • Reads and writes numerals to 5
  • Draws a person with 6 or more different parts
  • Tells familiar stories without picture cues
  • Understands same/different
5 yrs 6 months
  • Balances on one foot for 12 seconds
  • Skips using alternate feet at least 4 times
  • Prefers to use either right or left hand
  • Names most uppercase but not most lowercase letters
  • Recognizes own name when printed with lowercase & capital letters
5 yrs 7 months
  • Prints own first name in either uppercase or lowercase letters without a model
  • Uses all pronouns
5 yrs 9 months
  • Cuts well with scissors
  • Reads simple 3-letter words that are paired with familiar pictures
5 yrs 11 months
  • Does 8 or more push-ups
  • Does 5 or more sit-ups
  • Follows simple words with eyes and finger while adult reads
  • Catches a small ball with two hands
  • Rides a bike
6 yrs 1 months
  • Prints all numerals 0-9 and all letters without copying
  • Understands approximately 13,000 words
  • Mastered most speech sounds but may have difficulty with blends such as ‘spl’, ‘tr’
  • Understands opposites